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1.  Introduction

Both Jesus and the apostles preached repentance differently from how modern reformed and pentecostal theology teaches repentance.  Many people say that repentance is mandatory for the preaching of the gospel.  Yet, in the Biblical evangelism of Gentiles, we found this is not necessary.
So how is repentance defined, or what is the meaning of repent?

2.  Defining Repentance

In the original Greek, the definition of repent is the word metanoia, which means “Change the Way you Think!”.

That’s it, nothing more, and nothing less.  It does not mean “turn away from your sins and turn to God”.  Although in the long term, it will be the outcome of repenting through the transforming process of salvation (See Transformation Through Salvation).

3.  The Message of Repentance by John the Baptist

Here is the first New Testament mention of the word repent:

“Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!”

Matthew 3:2

Using the term for repent as above, we can translate this to: “Change the way you are thinking, let your thoughts be about the kingdom of God which is coming soon.”

A. Who Is John the Baptist?

John is the last of the Old Covenant prophets (and the law):

For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.

Matthew 11:13

And was preparing the way for the one who would baptise in the Holy Spirit:

I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.

Matthew 3:11

B. John is Preaching Repentance to Jews, not Gentiles

John aimed his message of repentance at the Pharisees who wanted to keep the law according to the Old Covenant.  But the central theme of John’s message was that the Messiah is coming, and He will set up His Kingdom as promised.  However, the religious leaders’ view was that this would happen by obeying the Old Covenant.

But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, “Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Matthew 3:7

C. Preparing the Way

He talks about the Jewish religious system, upon which wrath is coming.  The wrath John is referring to is the Great Tribulation, as prophesied by Jesus in Matthew 24:34, that would happen to that generation in 66-70CE, destroying Jerusalem:

For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be.

Matthew 24:21


Therefore John was preparing the way for the end of the Old Covenant and then the new birth that would come through the New Covenant.
John’s message to the Jewish leaders was:  

“Change how you think; the Old Covenant will be replaced!
The New Covenant is coming where everyone who believes will enter the Kingdom of God.”

4.  Jesus Starts His Earthly Ministry- “Repent and Believe.”

Here is the second biblical mention of the word repent:

“The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.”

Mark 1:15

Do you notice something powerful here?  There is no message of ‘godly sorrow’; there is no message weighing people down with guilt and shame about their sins!  It is simply, “Change the way you think and believe the gospel.” The gospel is about the Kingdom within us as we discovered in God’s Kingdom Here NOW.

5.  Jesus’ Last Evangelism was without Preaching Repentance.

While Jesus was on the cross, a criminal next to Him was already soft-hearted towards God.  As a result, Jesus did not include Repentance in His massage.  His entrance into the family of God is based simply on His faith.

But the other, answering, rebuked him, saying, “Do you not even fear God, seeing you are under the same condemnation? And we indeed justly, for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this Man has done nothing wrong.” Then he said to Jesus, “Lord, remember me when You come into Your kingdom.”
And Jesus said to him, “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.”

Luke 23:40-43

6.  Jesus Preached the Gospel, Which Means Good News.

Before I preach, I ask myself, “Is my message excellent news?”

As followers of Jesus, we are to do the same works he did.  Heal the sick, cast out demons, raise the dead and tell people to sin no more.
Jesus only rebuked the religious people for their sins.  He did not turn them away whenever anybody sincerely came to Him with a need.

Remember, we learnt that the Kingdom of God came when Jesus sat down at the right hand of the Father.  In our study, God’s Kingdom is here now.

7.  Repentance and Godly Sorrow

Some Christians expect new believers to show godly sorrow as evidence of repentance immediately.  And unless they do, they are not born-again, but this is not a requirement of the born again experience.

Now I rejoice, not that you were made sorry, but that your sorrow led to repentance. For you were made sorry in a godly manner, that you might suffer loss from us in nothing.

2 Corinthians 7:9

A. Case-Specific Godly Sorrow

The scripture reference is about a church approving of sexual immorality.

In the first letter to the Corinthian church, Paul confronted the believers straying from the truth.  Because some were in an incestuous relationship that even un-believers would consider wrong.
Moreover, the Corinthian church was not repentant but rather proud to show unconditional ‘love’.

For godly sorrow produces repentance leading to salvation, not to be regretted; but the sorrow of the world produces death.

2 Corinthians 7:10

B. Repentance by Leadership

Church leadership’s expectation of repentance is different from a new believer becoming born again.
Yet the reference to godly sorrow is specific to a particular instance – sexual sin where the church was proud of it:

It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among the Gentiles—that a man has his father’s wife! And you are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he who has done this deed might be taken away from among you.

1 Corinthians 5:1-2

There is no biblical requirement of godly sorrow for new believers.

C. Will People Have Godly Sorrow Before They are Born-Again?

Yes, absolutely SOME will, because the Holy Spirit convicts the world of sin.  But that doesn’t mean that EVERY person will have evidence of godly sorrow until they are born again.  And remember that ‘godly sorrow’ was for the Corinthian church leadership for not addressing the sexual sin within the church.

8.  The First Gospel Message Preached to the Gentiles Did Not Mention Repentance:

Please refer to the Biblical Evangelism of Gentiles for a complete study on this subject.

9.  The First Gospel Message to the Jews Included the Word ‘Repent.’

Then Peter said to them, “Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call.”

Acts 2:38-39

Remember, this was for followers of the law.  In verse 36, Peter talks to the house of Israel.

“Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.”

Acts 2:36

They needed to change their thinking (repent) because Jesus recently nailed the Old Covenant to the cross (Col 2:14-15).  The New Covenant is now in effect for whosoever believed.   Repentance required a complete change in the way that they thought.

Let us change how we think about sin, sickness and torment through kingdom thinking, not looking for some sin in our lives unless God brings it to light.  All we have to do is confess our sins, and He will forgive our sins and FORGET our sins – we need to forgive OURSELVES and forget our sins once we have disclosed them.   That may require repentance for some of us!

10.  Repentance from Dead Works

In Hebrews 6, we find that repentance from dead works is one of the elementary truths:

Therefore, leaving the discussion of the elementary principles of Christ, let us go on to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God,

Hebrews 6:1

However, we need to read this in context.  The whole book of Hebrews talks to the Jewish people who were still trying to keep the Old Covenant requirements.  So the writer to the Hebrews (probably Paul) explains the superiority of faith in Jesus – versus the law, angels, Moses and the priesthood.  Furthermore, he refers to the faultiness of the Old Covenant and the establishment of the New Covenant.  He also teaches the superiority of faith in the letter to the Hebrews.

So we need to have a closer look at the six elementary truths in total:

Therefore, leaving the discussion of the elementary principles of Christ, let us go on to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.

Hebrews 6:1-2

We notice that the word AND compares faith to those of dead works.
The finished work he is referring to is the law.
Paul wrote the entire letter to the Hebrews to encourage the Jewish believers to leave Jerusalem.  Because the sacrifices are no longer pleasing to God,  Jesus has replaced the High Priest, and the temple is just a reflection of the Heavenly Temple.  Moreover,
the Old Covenant is faulty, and there is a New Covenant in place, the reason why Jesus died.

11.  Change the Way you Think (Repent) about your Lifestyle

We need to change how we think about every aspect of our lives.  Because it affects the way we speak, view ourselves and treat others.  Moreover, we need to change how we think about sin, lying, thieving, addictions, and inappropriate relationships.

Sow a thought and you reap an action, sow an act and you reap a habit, sow a habit and you reap a character, sow a character and you reap a destiny.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Notice how it starts with changing the way you think; repentance!

12.  Fruitfulness in the Kingdom is the Sign of True Repentance

The evidence of repentance is good fruit.

Therefore bear fruits worthy of repentance, and do not begin to say to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father.’ For I say to you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones.

Luke 3:8

A. General Population – Be Generous to the Poor

He answered and said to them, “He who has two tunics, let him give to him who has none; and he who has food, let him do likewise.”

Luke 3:11

A fruit of repentance will be a change in our thinking regarding finances.  For example, Jesus says if you have a surplus, you should share it with those who have none.

B. Tax Collectors – do not Steal

And he said to them, “Collect no more than what is appointed for you.”

Luke 3:13

The tax collectors were stealing from people, taking advantage of their lack of mathematical skills.

C. Jewish Soldiers – do not Manipulate or Intimidate

Likewise the soldiers asked him, saying, “And what shall we do?”
So he said to them, “Do not intimidate anyone or accuse falsely, and be content with your wages.”

Luke 3:14

Some people think that this means John was also talking to the Gentiles.  However, it does not say Roman soldiers – just soldiers.  I like what John Gills Exposition says on the topic:

Some think these were Gentile soldiers, since it does not look so likely that the Romans would employ Jews as soldiers in their own country; though it is more probable that they were Jews, in the pay of the Romans, who belonged to Herod, tetrarch of Galilee, or to Philip of Ituraea, whose dominions lay near the place where John was: since it is certain, that there were many of the Jews that betook themselves to a military life; and seeing John instructed them in no part of natural or revealed religion, but what was suitable to their character and employment: for upon these men saying,

John Gills Exposition of the Bible

D. Jewish Soldiers – False Accusations

Likewise the soldiers asked him, saying, “And what shall we do?”
So he said to them, “Do not intimidate anyone or accuse falsely, and be content with your wages.”

Luke 3:14

It is interesting to ponder the things God hates, and falsely accusing is one of them.

These six things the LORD hates,
Yes, seven are an abomination to Him:
A proud look,
A lying tongue,
Hands that shed innocent blood,
A heart that devises wicked plans,
Feet that are swift in running to evil,
A false witness who speaks lies,
And one who sows discord among brethren.

Proverbs 6:16-19

E. Jewish Soldiers – Financial Contentment.

Likewise the soldiers asked him, saying, “And what shall we do?”
So he said to them, “Do not intimidate anyone or accuse falsely, and be content with your wages.”

Luke 3:14

A simpler lifestyle, not chasing after getting money as your priority, is evidence of repentance.

Being sorry for your sins is not fruit of repentance,
a change in lifestyle is.

13.  Using Repentance in Your Gospel Message.

I use repentance carefully in my crusades.  The gospel is good news, and so when using ‘to repent’, I am careful to define it, explaining it means to “change the way you think”.  I talk about sin, and that sin has consequences – broken relationships, loneliness, despair, and worry are some examples.  The purpose of repentance is to bring liberty to the person because sin always has consequences.  Everybody is aware of the consequences of sin.  However, repentance is not necessary for every person to be born again, as we saw with Cornelius in the Biblical Evangelism of Gentiles.

But I focus on what we will be ‘saved from’ when we repent.
Maybe the focus needs to be on sickness, and the person needs to change the way they think about the goodness of God.
Or they need to change the way they think about torment and ask Jesus to deliver them.
Maybe it is sin that is the crux for them?  If it is – then Jesus is the answer.  Everybody needs to have their sins taken away, and only belief in Jesus can do that.
Please look at Transformation Through Salvation for further teaching on these subjects.

Video on Repentance


© Use by Permission Awakening Impact Ministries/ Dr Neville van Eerten 2022



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